Have you ever been in a situation in which you have no idea what the terms in an article means? And this term is usually the key to get the whole gist of that.
In these cases, the solution is searching for that term somewhere else and find its meaning. Well, my friend, from now on, you’ll be an expert in fitness terms and I can guarantee you’ll know everything about fitness.
And I can say that because I’ve put a glossary together including the most common words in talks, articles and videos on workout. Read carefully and use this guide whenever you need. Shall we?
Aerobic: They’re exercises that increase oxygen consumption. Walking, running, cycling, and other activities are examples of aerobic training. Doing it regularly contribute to the reduction of stress, weight loss and conditioning.
Anabolic Steroid: They’re hormones created synthetically or naturally that contribute to muscular growth. Usually, it derives from testosterone and can be administered injectably or orally.
Anabolism: It’s the process of complex molecule formation from smaller elements. That happens in order to build new proteins (large molecules) and, consequently, leads to muscle growth.
But how? With the help of amino acids, which are simple molecules. This process of taking the amino acid and turning it into protein is called anabolism.
Asymmetry: Difference in muscle size or shape between the left and the right sides.
Atrophy: When we stop working out the muscles reduce in size so that there’s no unnecessary demand of energy. This is called atrophy.
Body Fat (BF): That’s the amount of fat your body contains. For instance, if you’re FB is 20%, it means that 20% of your body mass is composed of fat.
Bi set: It’s a type of training recommended for athletes of intermediate or advanced level. Two different exercises for the same muscle group (or not) are done nonstop. It’s a great way to stimulate hypertrophy, other than save time in the gym.
Biological value: Term used to compare protein sources (foods or supplements) that provide amino acids to the body more or less easily. For instance, when some protein has high biological value, it means it brings amino acids into your body more easily. So, since it’s quickly absorbed, it’s considered more efficient in terms or protein source.
Biotype: Term that refers to different types of metabolism. There are three categories. Endomorphs: people who tend to be overweight and face difficulties to lose weight. Ectomorphs: people who tend to be too thin and have difficulties to gain weight or mass. Lastly, there are the mesomorphs, who are between the other two types and have neither of their physiological difficulties mentioned above.
Bodybuilder: They’re people who work (professionally or not) hard on developing and defining all their muscles. AKA physioculturist.
Bulking: The process of gaining weight and mass used by athletes. This technique involves ingesting more calories than you can burn. Of course these calories should derive from healthy foods, like egg, lean meats, protein supplements, etc.
Catabolism: That’s the opposite of anabolism (mentioned above). In this case, the complex substances are turned into simple substances. That usually happens when we go without eating for too long, and the body then searches for source of energy in proteins, breaking them in small molecules.
Therefore, if you wish to gain lean mass, you must avoid catabolism big time.
Concentric Phase: When we’re about to make a movement, when we first contract the muscles, that is, the articular extremities are the nearest. This is the concentric phase.
Cutting: that’s the period of muscle definition. At such moment, the athlete focuses all their efforts (diet and workout) on eliminating as much fat as possible as to get as much definition as one can.
Day off: That’s the day off. At this moment the athletes don’t do any workout whatsoever. It’s recommended to let your body recover from all the strain done along days or weeks.
Drop set: The kind of workout in which you start with medium to heavy load and repeat until your limit. After that, you lower the load and do more reps until your limit. The number of reps vary from person to person and should be defined by the instructor.
Dumbbell: this is the name you give to a metal bar with a weight on each end.
Eccentric Phase: This is the moment when the articular extremities get distant from one another.
Failure: Many times, during some repetition, we come to a point in which our muscle is so fatigued that you can’t keep going. This is the failure.
Fitness: (1) This is when we talk about workout (synonym). (2) The characteristic of a person who’s got great muscle volume and definition.
Forced reps: You know when you need some help finishing a certain exercise? That’s called forced repetition.
Functional training: Sets of exercises based on natural movements of the body, like running, pulling, jumping, squatting, spinning and pushing. With this kind of training, it’s possible to gain strength, balance, flexibility, conditiong, resistance and agility.
Giant set: Sets which include many exercises that work the same muscle in different ways, with little or no rest between them.
Hypertrophy: When we do physical exercises, mainly weight training, our muscles are stimulated and grow in size little by little. Such muscle growth is called hypertrophy.
Hormones: Chemical substance produced by the endocrine system or by neurons in our brains. They’re released in small amounts in our blood and acts in the organism for quite a long time.
Besides the brain, other organs or certain cells can produce some hormones. Their roles are many, like growth, development, reproduction as well as tissue functions and metabolic processes in the organism.
IFBB: International Federation of Bodybuilders
Isometry: Contracting a muscle and hold the load for a certain while. For example, by exercising your biceps in the pulley in the concentric phase, you contract your muscle (isometry) for some time to get back to the eccentric phase next.
Lactic Acid: When we work out, our body uses glucose as fuel with the contribution of oxygen. However, when we exceed our capacity, the organism uses only glucose, with no contribution of oxygen.
That’s when we produce lactic acid. Stored in our muscles, the excess of it can lead to sore muscles and cramps.
Maximum VO2: AKA VO2 max, that’s exactly the maximum amount of oxygen your body will need during the workout.
Metabolism: They’re group of reactions and chemical processes that happen in our body. Such reactions are responsible for all the synthetic process and nutrient degradation in the cells.
Overtraining: When we go beyond our limits in the workout and don’t have enough recovery. Which means that when your body can no longer properly recover, due to such excess, the organism goes into overtraining.
Its main symptoms are: tiredness, irritability, joint pain, despondency, low immunity, insomnia, among others.
Pyramid: A kind of training that’s organized going up or down. Going up means that you’ll raise your load and lower the number of reps at the end of each set. Now if you go down, you’ll reduce your load and raise the number of reps at the end of each set.
Pump: You know when you fell kind of swollen after working out? That’s called Pump and it happens because the blood flow increases in that part you just exercised.
Symmetry: A symmetric body has its upper and bottom portions compatible, and the left and right sides alike in terms of size and shape.
Super sets: When you perform two or more different exercises at the same time, one after the other.
Time release: They’re protein supplements that will gradually supply our body with amino acids for a long time.
Training volume: It’s your total training in numbers. That is, the amount of time (duration in hours), total amount of lifted loads, plus the number of exercises, sets and reps.
Window of opportunity: the time right after your workout session in which the body absorb as many nutrients as it possibly can in order to recover from exertion. It varies from 20 minutes to 1 hour after working out.
I suggest you keep this file at hand. This way you’ll have your questions answered whenever you read an article on fitness over here.